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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines


DJE prefers word processing formats for manuscript preparation and submission. Author/s should submit their manuscripts online or via email. Authors should supply a title, short title, an abstract and keywords to accompany their article. Author/s should provide full contact details for the corresponding author including email, mailing address and telephone numbers. These details should be presented separately to the main text of the article to facilitate anonymous peer review. DJE adheres to the latest version of the APA writing and referencing styles. DJE recommends that authors follow the manuscript submission guidelines formulated by the editors. Only manuscripts of sufficient quality that meet the aims and scope of DJE will be accepted.

Style and Format 

Before submitting the manuscripts for publication in DJE, contributors should pay attention to the general format of scientific papers and the following specific requirements:

The Title Page

The following should appear on the Title Page

  • The full title of the article;
  • The name(s) of the author(s);
  • The title(s), affiliation(s) of the author(s) referred to at the bottom of the page with an asterisk if it is a single author or numerical superscripts against each name if it is more than one.
  • Capitalize (all words, except for short connectives, should start with a capital letter);

It is the responsibility of the authors to declare the amount of contribution made by each of the contributors. When this is not indicated, normally, the following applies:

  • An equal contribution is presumed when the names are written in alphabetical order, or
  • The degree of contribution should be determined by the order in which the names appear unless indications to the contrary are given by the authors.
  • All correspondence will be made with the author whose name appears first (unless indicated otherwise).

Length of Manuscripts

Articles to DJE should not exceed 8, 000 words including references. On the other hand, reviews shall have a maximum length of 6,000 words. The word count limit includes title, abstract, tables, figures, and references list. Additional supporting materials not in the printed edition can be referenced in the print version and included in the online version of the article.


The abstract of the manuscript should be logically sequenced with no paragraph break. The abstract be prepared so as to indicate the purpose of the research, the methods or approaches employed, results obtained, and conclusions and implications of the research. It should be in Times New Roman style, italicized and single-spaced with maximum word limit of 250. Authors are strictly advised to adhere to the APA abstract standard of writing.


Text manuscripts in DJE should be written in the following way. The body of the paper should begin immediately after the title, author text and the abstract. All text should be in Times New Roman, 12 pt. 1.5 line-spaced, and with no underlining and bolding.


All the headings (except for short connectives) in DJE are required to be capitalized. Besides, all the headings (except the title) should be left-justified; leave 2 lines above and 1 line below the headings.

Heading levels:

  • Title: centred, 14 points in font size, bold
  • 1st-level heading: left-justified, 12 points, bold
  • 2nd-level heading: left-justified, 10 points, bold
  • 3rd-level heading: left-justified, 10 points, bold, italic

Figures and tables

Figures should be submitted as high-quality computer graphics. Each table should be typed double spaced on a separate page and referred to in numerical order in the text. Place footnotes at the bottom of the table; indicate footnotes with lowercase letters. Manuscripts with tables and graphs shall be presented as follows:

  • Insert the text "Figure n: description" or "Table n: description" after a figure or a table (n is a unique number);
  • All tables and figures have to be numbered using Arabic numerals;
  • Tables and figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order;
  • For each table and figure, supply a caption/title explaining the components;
  • Use 10 points font size for the titles/captions; leave one blank line above and below the tables and figures;
  • All the titles of the tables should appear at the top of the tables; whereas, they should be underneath in cases of figures.

Artworks and other graphics

In this journal, artworks refer to illustrations or non-textual materials, paintings, drawings or other artistic works prepared for inclusion in a publication. Thus, when using artworks and other graphics, authors should properly describe the materials and provide much information as possible about the artworks and graphics that have been used such as creator’s names, date the work was created, title of the work, and place of publication, publisher, and type of material.

Citation of Notes and References

All sources listed in the reference list must be cited at appropriate points in the text alphabetically by the author's last name, publication year, and pagination where appropriate, as indicated. Ethiopian authors should be listed in alphabetical order of the first name. Ethiopian names should be written in full in the References (i.e. first and second names) as they are given in the publication cited. Honorific titles such as Prof., Dr., Mr., Mrs., Wzro, Wzrt, Ato, Dejach, etc. should be avoided in citation or references. When more than one reference to an author was published in one year, distinguish them by use of letters (a, b, etc) attached to the publication year.

  • All materials referred to or quoted must be acknowledged. Plagiarism is illegal and unethical;
  • Direct quotations should be as short as possible and should be reproduced exactly in all details (spelling, punctuation and paragraphs) as the original.
  • Place quoted sources quotation marks, in normal text style, if the size of the quoted material is 40 words or less;
  • Long quotations (i.e. more than 40 words) should be set off from the text in a separate paragraph, indented (five spaces) and single-spaced. Quotation marks are omitted. Use single quotation marks when the material is a direct quote from its source.
  • The page number for quoted material should be placed at the end of the quotation.
  • Use the most recent APA referencing style for the in-text citation which includes author’s last name and the year of publication (e.g., James, 2012). Add the page number whenever quoting directly or paraphrasing a specific section of the text (e.g., James, 2012, p.17); and

The letters a, b, c and so on should be used to distinguish citations of different works by the same author in the same year. Example: Daniel (1985a, c) recommended that.

Research paper structure

  • Title, Abstract & Keywords
  • Introduction  & Background
  • Methods
  • Results & Discussions
  • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Acknowldgements (optional)
  • Conflict of Interest
  • References



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