Archives

  • PUBLIC SPACE OCCUPATION AND UTILIZATION AMONG STREET CHILDREN OF DILLA TOWN
    Vol. 3 No. 2 (2021)

    Abstract
    The problem of street children is a global concern and an increasing number of children are being forced to the streets driven by poverty, abuse, loss of parent, divorce, and torture. Most of these children are deprived of basic needs such as shelter, food and cloth. There is a widespread perception among the children and the public in large that public space is a free space for street children to enjoy. This paper explores public space occupation and utilization by street children using GIS and RS techniques.

  • THE ROLE OF PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT IN SUSTAINING RURAL LIVELIHOOD AND FOREST CONDITIONS IN SHEKO FOREST, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020)

    Abstract
    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management highlighting the inclusion of communities have been promoted to halt deforestation and environmental degradation. The participatory Forest Management (PFM) scheme was introduced as an alternative tool to enhance sustainable forest management through community participation during the early 1990s. This study was conducted in the Sheko forest to examine the role of PFM on the livelihoods of rural community and forest conditions. Forest inventory and socioeconomic surveys were conducted to collect data through involving 95 households and 27 sample plots. The data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical tools.

  • MACRO AND MICRO MINERAL STATUS OF DAIRY FEEDS IN EAST SHOA ZONE, OROMIA REGION STATE, ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 2 No. 2 (2019)

    Abstract
    The aim of this study was to evaluate different feed types collected from two districts (Ada’a and Adama zuria) of two production systems (urban and peri-urban) based on season’s (dry and wet) in East Shoa Zone, for their macro and micro mineral concentrations. Feeds in the selected districts comprised of roughages, concentrates, and non-conventional feeds. All feed samples were taken directly from the field supplied by the farmers. The feed samples were analyzed for the macro and micro minerals namely Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Co, using atomic absorption flame emission spectrometer and P concentration was measured by the spectrophotometer. The critical level (CL) used in this article is defined as the concentration of minerals below the level considering the requirements for dairy cows. The mean calcium concentrations in roughage varied from (0.13 to 0.55%); concentrate (0.14 to 0.64%) and non-conventional feed (0.34 to 0.69%) DM respectively.

  • Determinants of Rural Youth Participation in Non-Farm Income Generating Activities: the Case of East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia
    Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    Rural youths are forced to look for non-farm income generating activities to sustain and secure their livelihoods as well as to supplement their agricultural activities. However, their participation in nonfarm activities is influenced by various and yet empirically unidentified factors in East Gojjam Zone. Thus, the aim of the study was to identify factors that determine the participation of rural youths in non-farm income generating activities in the study area. The study drew a sample of 360 rural youths through systematic random sampling technique from three woredas of East Gojjam Zone. Data were collected using interview schedule, focus group discussions and key informant interviews.

  • Assessment of Environmental Security from the Standpoint of Threat to National Security: The Case of Ethiopia
    Vol. 1 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    Different researches have revealed that Ethiopia has a number of environmentally-related problems that threaten national security. The country loses up to 2-6 percent of annual crop production due to climate uncertainties, with drought being the main national environmental challenge. Ethiopia has a high country risk index of 7.38, one of the highest in Eastern Africa, which underlies a high level of potential risk for conflict, both within the country as well as in the region. Again, Ethiopia has an environmental score of 7.67 which is a high risk level. Generally speaking, therefore, Ethiopia is identified as a hot spot for environmental concern.

  • EFFECT OF VERMICOMPOST APPLICATION ON POTATO TUBER YIELD AT BULE DISTRICT, HIGHLAND OF GEDEO ZONE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 3 No. 2 (2021)

    Abstract
    Ethiopia is known for its high potato production potential though the average productivity compared to
    other countries is low. Various factors were contributed for its low productivity including soil acidity
    and unbalanced soil nutrient concentrations which are serious challenges to small scale farmers for crop
    production in the highlands of Ethiopia.

  • COFFEE RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENTS, THEIR BACKSTOPPING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUB-SECTOR IN ETHIOPIA AND PRODUCTIVITY GAP BETWEEN FARM AND RESEARCH: A Review
    Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020)

    Abstract
    Literature shows more of the world population turns to coffee consumption particularly Latin America, India and China. Demand for the beverage is estimated to increase by nearly 25% over the coming five years. On the other hand, global coffee production and supply is very unlikely to increase due to many factors. To fill the expected gap between production and consumption, Ethiopia has a better opportunity. Current productivity per hectare is about 647 kg which is lower than in many growing countries. Eventually, the research developed 42 coffee verities among which 35 are selections and seven of them are hybrids. As different coffee husbandry technologies enable to boost coffee production and productivity many agronomic practices are generated and recommended along with coffee varieties.

  • Effect of Applied Lime and Mineral Phosphorus Fertilizer on Phosphorus Transformation in Acid Soils of West Wollega, Ethiopia
    Vol. 2 No. 2 (2019)

    ABSTRACT
    Prevalent occurrence of P deficiency in strongly acid soils is one of the major problems limiting crop production in high rainfall regions of Ethiopia where Phosphorus (P) fixation, nutrient leaching and soils erosion are common. This work investigated effect of liming and applied mineral P on the P transformation of acid soils of West Wollega, Ethiopia. To study the P transformations, P fractionation was carried out to determine distributions of P in the various P pools. The soils were categorized as strongly acidic in which the pH (H2O) values varied between 4.35 and 4.82.

  • Effects of scattered Faidherbia albida (Del. A. Chev) tree on yield and yield components of three Cereal crops in Central Ethiopia
    Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    Understanding tree-crop interaction is a key aspect in determining approprate tree-crop combination
    and managements. However, little is known about the influence of tree crop interaction and tree management on crop productivity. The study was conducted with the aim of investigating the
    effects of Faidherbia albida on yield and yield components of three cereal crops: wheat (Triticum
    aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) in Central Ethiopian
    farmers field at Silti District.Three independent experiments were conducted using randomized
    complete block design with five replications for each experiment.

  • Networks, Perceptions, and Migration Decisions: A Comparative Analysis of Young Migrants from the Gurage and Wolayita Areas to Addis Ababa
    Vol. 1 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    In Ethiopia, rural-urban migration has been visibly dominated by the mobility of the youth. Scholarly works in the area have exhaustively identified the prominent causes as well as effects of this pattern of mobility. By going beyond the push-pull categorization, this study comparatively examines the role of social networks in the migration decision of young rural-urban migrants. Precisely, revealing the nexus between social networks, migrants’ perceptions of their home, and destination, vis-à-vis migration decision has been the concern of this inquiry. The study being of a qualitative type, interview and focus group discussion were employed as the main instruments of data collection. Having adopted a purposive sampling design, participants of the study were selected by using snowball and quota sampling techniques.

  • ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN ALE SPECIAL DISTRICT, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 3 No. 2 (2021)

    Abstract
    An Ethno-botanical study was carried out to investigate the type, associated knowledge and practices of
    medicinal plants used by the local people in Ale Special District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Ninety informants were
    selected by preferential sampling technique. Ethnobotanical data about traditional medicinal plant names
    and associated knowledge such as use, remedy preparation, administration, and others were collected using semi-structured interview, field observation, and focus group discussion. Informant consensus, preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, informant consensus factor and fidelity level were computed. A total of 72 medicinal plant species belonging to 68 genera and 39 families were documented.

  • ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF CROTON MACROSTACHYUS LEAVES AND PURE COMPOUND (METHYL LAURATE) ISOLATED FROM IT
    Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020)

    Abstract
    Croton macrostachyus Delil belongs to one of the largest genera of the family Euphorbiaceae, called Croton under the subfamily Crotonoideae. The genus Croton is ecologically prominent, and an important source of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties in tropics and subtropics. The objective of this study was to test the antibacterial property of the leaf extract of Croton macrostachyus and a lauric acid derivative, Methyl Laurate, isolated from it. Crude extract was obtained through phytochemical screening using the solvent acetone.

  • Determinants of Farmers’ Decision to Use Improved Land Management Practice in Gindara Watershed, Southern Ethiopia
    Vol. 2 No. 2 (2019)

    Abstract
    The principal environmental problem in Ethiopia is land degradation in the form of severe soil erosion, gully formation and soil fertility loss. To overcome this problem, promoting appropriate land management technologies are best options. However, farmers’ decisions to use land management practices are determined by complex factor. Thus, this study was conducted in Gindara watershed with the objective of analyzing the status of farmers’ choice of improved land management practices and investigating determinants of farmers’ decisions to use improved land management practices.

  • The Effect of Smallholder Farmers’ Managed Wetlands on Plants’ Diversity and Soil Properties in Gedeo Zone, Gedeb wereda, Southern Ethiopia.
    Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    This study was conducted in southern Ethiopia to assess the impact of smallholder farmers’
    managed wetlands on plants diversity and soil properties. Vegetation data were collected from 60
    plots having (1m x1m) quadrats laid on five transects lines along the altitudinal gradient. Vegetation
    data were analyzed using, descriptive statistics, Sorenson’s similarity, and Shannon-Wiener
    diversity index and R. 2.14 software.

  • Asian Vitis Species for Modern Grapevine Breeding and Wine Industry: A Review
    Vol. 1 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    Viticulture is one of the major horticultural industries of the world, with the area of grapevines cultivated exceeding 7.9 million hectare. The grapevines belong to the family Vitaceae, which are mostly woody, tree-climbing vines, though a few have a shrubby growth habit. They have tendrils and inflorescences opposite the leaves. The grapevine fruit is used in a wide variety of products, ranging through fresh fruit, preserves, juice, wine and raisins. This review paper attempts to address a potential Asian Vitis species, as there was no sufficient information and most of the species were ignored in modern viticulture and enology. Vitis amurensis, Vitis heyneana, Vitis davidii, and Vitis yeshanensis are the most common and most popular species in Asia.

  • WATER HYACINTH INVASION IN THE RIFT VALLEY LAKES BASIN—AN EMERGING ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES: A REVIEW PAPER
    Vol. 3 No. 2 (2021)

    Abstract
    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) occurs almost throughout wetlands of Africa and poses serious socioeconomic and environmental problems of people in riparian communities, which added constraints on the sluggish development process. This review aims to show the spatial distribution, characteristic and impacts of water hyacinth to initiate urgent policy attention and amelioration mechanisms in Rift Valley Lakes Basin (RVLB). This invasive weed has spread quickly from Amazon to many tropical and sub-tropical countries and known to cause major ecological, environmental, and socioeconomic challenges.

  • SELECTING SOLIDWASTE SITES USING INTEGRATED FUZZY LOGIC MODEL AND MULTI CRITERIA APPROACH IN SHASHEMENE TOWN: OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020)

    Abstract
    Solid waste is unwanted material generated from combined residential, industrial, and commercial activities in a given area. Since landfills are permanent sites, they need special attention in selecting the location by applying an efficient method. This study employed the Fuzzy logic in combination with Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) methods for the selection of solid waste landfill site in Shashemene town. Moreover, the study used multi-criteria decision-making integrated with Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate solid waste site.

  • Informal Economy and Livelihood: Experiences of Women in Dilla Town, Southern Ethiopia
    Vol. 2 No. 2 (2019)

    Abstract
    This study investigates the nexus between the informal economy and women's livelihood improvement in developing economies like Ethiopia. Women in developing countries in general and in Ethiopian developing economy in particular face multi-dimensional challenges that include economic, political, social and cultural factors which undermine both of their agency and capability. The high incidence of poverty and family responsibility under such circumstances compels them to the informal sector where operations are far from getting policy support. The objective of this research is to investigate the role of the informal economy in improving the livelihood of women in terms of income, employment and reduction of poverty of households led by women operating in the informal sector in Dilla town.

  • Talking Plants: Communication and Signaling via Volatiles
    Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    There is an urgent need for new sustainable solutions to support plants in facing current environmental challenges. In particular, strengthening of productivity and food security needs sustainable exploitation of natural resources and metabolites. In this review, we fetch the attention to the agronomic potential of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants, as a natural and eco-friendly solution to defend from stresses and to enhance crop production. Plants defense by emitting volatile organic compounds communicate with herbivore-attacked neighbors to activate defenses before being attacked.

  • The Role of Moisture Schemes in Regional Climate Modeling of Precipitation over the Horn of Africa
    Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    This study aims to evaluate the performance of the latest Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) to simulate the precipitation over the Horn of Africa. Although there are several aspects in which the model can be improved, the focus of this study is to tackle the problem of its moisture scheme. RegCM4 moisture scheme has fourteen moisture scheme parameters, which can be tuned within the allowed physical limits. Each of the fourteen moisture parameters have been varied around the current default setting and over 80 model runs have been performed for a domain defined by 60km resolution, 18 vertical levels covering spatially the whole Africa and the major circulation patterns that derive climate over the region.

  • Large Scale Commercial Farming and Its Environmental Impacts: The Case of Gambella Regional State
    Vol. 1 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    The change in Ethiopia’s economic policy from small scale farming to large scale farming began with the global food and fuel crisis in 2007/8. This has led many countries including the Gulf States and several East Asian countries, to re-evaluate their strategies and secure land and water essentially to produce food and fuel. Consequently, in Ethiopia, more than four million hectares of land has been leased to investors for large-scale commercial farming out of which the total land area of 524,202.58 hectares has been distributed for both local and foreign investors in Gambella Regional State. Hence, the main purpose of the study was to assess the impacts of large-scale commercial farming on the sustainability of environment in Gambella regional state.

  • DETERMINANTS OF ADOPTION OF INTRODUCED LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN SANA WATERSHED, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 3 No. 2 (2021)

    Abstract
    In Ethiopia, soil erosion is a severe problem and a major cause of the decline of land productivity. A number of soil and water conservation practices were introduced in south central highlands of Ethiopia to combat land degradation and for sustainable land management. However, the adoption of these practices is far below the expectation. The objective of this study was to examine factors affecting adoption of introduced land management practices in Sana watershed, Southern Ethiopia. Mixed research design methods were employed in order to conduct this study.

  • URBAN SOLIDWASTE MANAGEMENT: PERSPECTIVE FROM DILLA TOWN, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020)

    Abstract
    This article aims to examine solid waste management practices in Dilla town, Southern Ethiopia. The
    empirical data is gathered through repeated fieldwork carried out in 2017 with 120 households in Dilla
    town. Observation, questionnaires, interviews, and focus group discussions were used to obtain the primary data. This study has also benefited from various secondary sources. As the study shows, in Dilla, there is a paucity of basic infrastructure to collect and safely dispose solid wastes. As a result, scenes of scattered wastes, the heap of wastes, and overflowing containers are common in the town. These problems are linked to lack of containers, improper use of transfer stations, limited municipal waste collection service, apathy towards environmental sanitation, a gap in law enforcement, low municipal budgets for the sector, and lack of strategic planning. Thus, the existing rules and regulations of solid waste management have to be strengthened and enforced. There have to be mechanisms by which the government and private sectors work together to ensure sustainable solid waste management.

  • EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF PARTHENIUM (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) WEED DENSITY ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD OF TEFF (Eragrostis tef Zucc. Trotter) IN SHEWA-ROBIT DISTRICT, NORTH SHEWA, ETHIOPIA
    Vol. 2 No. 2 (2019)

    Abstract
    Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), is one of the top alien invasive weed species in more than 40 countries, including Ethiopia. It infests several crops and causes significant yield losses, the extent of which depends, among others, on the density of weed and characteristics of crop species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) weed density on vegetative growth and grain yield of teff (Eragrostis tef Zucc. Trotter) using field experiment. Factorial combination of two traditional teff landraces namely Nech and Seregegna; and three levels of weed density (0, 5% and 10%) were used in the study.

  • Mass flowering and death of Arundinaria alpina (highland bamboo) impact on livelihood of rural community: the case of Gedeo Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
    Vol. 2 No. 1 (2019)

    Abstract
    Ethiopia owns the largest coverage of bamboos in Africa that sums up to more than 1 million
    hectares. This constitutes about 67% of the total area of bamboo in Africa. Bamboo plays a
    crucial role in the livelihood of the local people of Gedeo zone, south Ethiopia. However, the mass
    flowering and mass death currently hit the bamboo forest of the zone and affected both the people
    livelihood and the ecosystem of the area. Thus, this paper tries to highlight the consequences of
    mass flowering of bamboo forest on the livelihood of rural community of the zone.

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